The Methodology of Science

Science is an empirical, systematic venture which builds and develops knowledge in the form of precise testable predictions and generalizations about the universe. In the light of progress, technology and other people’s curiosity, science has found an ally in the endeavor to unearth the laws of the universe. This has made scientists to devise all possible methods that can measure the various parameters of the universe to provide useful insights. As a result, the world as we know it has been enriched with innumerable concepts and discoveries.


The study of science is dealt with by the various sciences. There are four such sciences in particular that are commonly known to man. These are natural science, physics, biology and chemistry. In all, there are over 100 sub-disciplines of science that are distinguished by their own unique contributions. Among these, the most important one is applied science which is mainly concerned with the measurement and evaluation of real systems. This sub-discipline of science includes the measurements, observations and results of physical sciences like physical science, mathematics, chemical science and even physics.

A central concept of science is that of experiment and research. The process of experimentation and research includes both the measuring and testing of a hypothesis. The elements of science include statistics, experimentation and result interpretation. The scientific method of measurement consists of at least three fundamental methods like the Taylor Formula, the Neyman-ITT criterion or the binomial tree. The first two are concerned with the generation of a sample or a set of actual values and the third one is concerned with the probability level of an observed event.

Experiments and researches in science generally determine whether the observed properties of a real entity can be logically derived from its basic constituents. This verification can be accomplished using scientific methods like the scientific method and the various testable predictions. When a conclusion is subsequently drawn from the data gathered, then this conclusion is called a scientific statement. Examples of real world manifestations covered in the realm of science are the laws of thermodynamics, cosmology and the big bang theory. In any given branch of science, there are distinct theories that can be tested to establish whether or not they are testable.

Sub divisions of science are more or less based on the hypothesis of the scientist who has conducted the research. For instance, physical science deals with the laws and nature of matter as well as the properties it can exhibit under a given circumstance. Biochemistry and genetics also belong to the realm of biochemistry. Plant sciences include those of agriculture, forestry and water management.

Many people are wary of the word “hypothesis” because they are afraid it may lead to the conclusion that a large number of phenomena are inexplicable. However, it must be remembered that a hypothesis is merely a starting point for further research. Scientists make use of hypotheses to conduct further studies that may lead them to an ultimate answer. Hypothesis in science is often very useful because it allows a scientist to explore uncharted waters. Without a hypothesis, there would be no reason for someone to continue their search for an explanation.

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