Types of Science

Science is an organized scientific enterprise which builds and directs knowledge in the shape of predictions and testable predictions about the external world. It includes a systematic approach to data collection, organization and analysis. There is a clear division between the fields of science. They are Physical Science which includes all physical sciences like astronomy, physics, chemistry, etc., Life Science including microbiology, zoology, ethology, immunology, physiology, medical science and environmental science. Biochemistry is the scientific study of chemical compounds. Astrophysics covers space science and space exploration.


In science, there is an attempt to define, describe, evaluate, explain and predict phenomena. There are two main methods used to make this happen i.e. The observational method and the experimental method. The observational method is used to look for and record evidence whereas the experimental method is used to manipulate, control and measure data to test a theory or to look for patterns.

Most scientists divide the process of science into three categories: The observation process or observation, the hypothesis process or hypothesis, and the scientific process or evaluation. For the observational process, a scientist observations a natural occurrence or an event and makes an hypothesis as to what caused that event. Once the hypothesis is verified experiment is done to find out if it is false. If it is false the scientist can come up with another hypothesis which will ultimately result in another observation. The cycle of hypothesis, observation, and testing is known as the scientific process.

To test a hypothesis scientists make use of various procedures. The best example of these procedures is the Scientific Method. This process was formulated by German Physicist Galileo in 1610. He formulated a way to test a hypothesis by taking the simple step of asking a few important questions. He did not expect that his hypothesis would be proved right away, but he was able to show that his idea was correct after putting many years into it.

Some people criticize the Scientific Method as being too time consuming. On the other hand, those who support the use of Science as a rigorous discipline say that such criticisms are aimed at discouraging real scientists from pursuing their pursuit of knowledge to the end. The best way for Science to proceed is for it to be independent, unhampered by any outside influence. It must be able to withstand scrutiny, and in doing so, it will eventually prove the validity of its own claims. Without this process there would be no verification of scientific truth.

The third type of science which scientists employ to prove their hypotheses is known as statistical analysis. Unlike the previous two types, statistical analysis makes use of empirical data and mathematical calculations to determine relationships among variables. It is the process by which scientists come to firm conclusions about a particular issue or question. To put it simply, all the figures and facts that science has revealed through the course of its investigation can be seen as a chain starting from the hypothesis which was first postulated, and continuing through to the final result.

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