The Role of Scientists in Preventing Scientific Fraud
Science is an organized enterprise which constructs and organizes scientific information in the form of precise predictions and testable predictions about the physical world around us. It is empirical, a study of nature by the means of rigorous scientific methods; it is theoretically sound, but can be falsified by other methods, and has been a source of advancement for all mankind since its beginning. It can stand as a monument to the human race and as a source of pride. One can call science the language of science, because the information concerning scientific problems is couched in highly complex language, making it difficult to understand at first sight. Science has changed greatly throughout the history of the planet, taking on new roles and forms as each day passes.
In order to discuss recent topics in science, it is important to point out the two main concepts. The first is called a hypothesis. A hypothesis suggests that there is some possibility that a law or rule of nature is operative, or at least that some aspect of nature is known. The hypothesis may be elaborate or simple, but it is often tested by observing certain types of results or data which contradict the competing view. Once a scientist has eliminated an explanation for the contradictory evidence, he can say that the rule or law does not exist, or is only a feature of nature that cannot be found in other areas.
Another concept that scientists use to explain recent results is called a theory. A theory is more of an umbrella phrase than a hypothesis; it simply states that science has reached a particular conclusion about a particular phenomenon. There are many theories that have been developed over the years, and while many have been eventually proved right, many remain open for further investigation. A number of well-known theories in science have been extended over the years, bringing the field into speculation.
One way that scientists make progress in their field is through a scientific method. This is simply the process of collecting and organizing the accumulated data that has been gathered over time and putting it in a useful form that can then be used to make predictions. For example, observations of earth’s motion are used to infer the presence of gravity, while past climate information helps scientists make predictions about climate change. By using a scientific method, a scientist can test a hypothesis and then see whether it is confirmed or falsified. Scientists are not immune to making mistakes, however, and if a hypothesis is not supported by the results after testing it in the scientific field, it can be rejected as a hypothesis that cannot be tested.
While many people think that science is just a matter of facts and evidence, there is actually much more to science than what could be seen with the naked eye. Some who are not scientists actually consider science to be pseudo-science, a fancy name for “thought without evidence.” Pseudo-science frequently refers to popular ideas that are widely held but not able to provide any support by factual evidence. When scientists are asked to examine these pseudo sciences for weaknesses, they are required to take a close look at the methods that were used to arrive at the conclusion. In addition, when observational data is collected from real events that are then re-examined, this process can shed new light on a theory. When theories are tested against the real world, results can often differ greatly in opinion, lending support to a theory while finding flaws in it that have not been noticed before.
One thing that is very clear about fraudulent scientific practices is that the scientific community generally reacts with alarm. If such a thing happens within the lab, it is usually impossible to do further research and if the results are in doubt, steps are taken to either dismiss the theory altogether or perform further research to test it again. Even though there are many different types of fraud in the scientific arena, the most common is that of scientific misconduct known as fraudulent hypothesis. This refers to the testing of a hypothesis in order to come to a wrong conclusion, and is one of the main reasons why scientists are so critical of fraudulent scientists. Fraudulent hypothesis has been named after the famous Frauds of Science book written by Arthur Holmes.